Water is called a substance whose molecule consists of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms, represented by H2O.
The concept of water normally refers to the substance presented in a liquid state. Although it can also be found in gaseous form, called vapor, and solid form, called ice.
Water is very present on the planet and in the solar system, in the latter it is found mainly in the form of ice or vapour. It is essential and important for the survival and origin of virtually all known species of life.
Water makes up 71% of the Earth’s surface. They are mainly found in the oceans, where 96.5% of all water is concentrated. 1.74% is found in the polar caps and glaciers. While continental glaciers, permafrost and underground aquifers or deposits have 1.72%. The remaining 0.04% is distributed in a decreasing manner between soil moisture, lakes, reservoirs, atmosphere, living things and rivers.
- 1 Electron configuration of water
- 2 Water uses
Electron configuration of water
Water has a simple molecular structure, its chemical formula is H2O. It is made up of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms.
The two hydrogen atoms are covalently bonded to the oxygen through a bond-like pair of electrons. Water has an irregular electron density distribution and is considered a polar molecule.
The currently most accepted Electron configuration for the water molecule, which has the ability to qualitatively describe the Electron distribution, expresses that the oxygen atom is in an sp2 type hybridization.
This means that two of the orbitals found in the parts of space where the 2p-type electrons belonging to oxygen are found combine with the 2s orbital to create three sp2-type orbitals, giving rise to a p-type orbital that it is unhybridized.
In this way, two of the sp2 type orbitals interact in the bonds next to the hydrogen atoms. On the other hand, in the two pairs of free electrons, one of them is associated with the third sp2 orbital belonging to oxygen and the other remaining pair is associated with the p-class orbital which does not is not hybridized to oxygen.
Water is used as a raw material for manufacturing processes of articles and products, in architecture, in the construction of public works and in bottling plants.
This resource is used in housekeeping, food, laundry and personal hygiene.
It is used to extract fish for recreational and commercial purposes.
Livestock and Agro-industry
Water is used for irrigation and cultivation, to feed animals, to process vegetables and fruits, to clean barns, farms and sheds in which animals are raised for human consumption.
Thermal power generation
Water can be used in power plants that use nuclear and thermal energy.
Hydroelectric power generation
This resource is also found in the reservoirs used by hydroelectric power stations to produce water currents and electrical energy allowing the movement of machinery.
Consumption in general
Water is needed for the irrigation of green spaces, public fountains and for cleaning squares and streets.
It is used in mining procedures.
Recreational tourism activities
This classification includes the waters of seas, rivers, pools and lakes in which sports such as water skiing, swimming, sailing, water polo, etc. are practiced. On the other hand, there is the water used for spending leisure time such as rivers, beaches, swimming pools and waterfalls.
Means of transport
Water of rivers, seas and lakes through which freighters move carrying goods.
Rational use of water
The rational use of water aims to manage and control the consumption of the resource. This concept is part of the general policy for the management of renewable natural resources and is associated with sustainable development which makes it possible to take advantage of this resource in an efficient manner, guaranteeing its quality and preventing its degradation so as not to put it at risk. evil. risk or compromise its availability in the future.
These principles are applied in architectural, engineering, agricultural and urban planning projects that design the framework for the conservation and exploitation of natural resources. It is understood that water is a very limited renewable resource.