The electron configuration of scandium is 1s2,2s2,2p6,3s2,3p6,4s2,3d1. The chemical element that belongs to the periodic table is called scandium, its atomic number is 21 and it is represented by the symbol Sc. This transition metal is found in the minerals of Scandinavia, it is frequently classified among the lanthanides because it has similarities with them.
This element is characterized by being a fairly light soft metal with great resistance to attack by hydrochloric and nitric acid. Its silvery hue dulls when exposed to air, reaching an essentially pink color. Generally, its oxidation state is +3 while its salts are colorless.
The properties of scandium closely resemble those of the lanthanides and those of yttrium, rather than those of titanium. For this reason, this element is frequently included in the rare earths.
Electron configuration of scandium
The electron configuration distribution of scandium is 1s2,2s2,2p6,3s2,3p6,4s2,3d1. While its abbreviated form corresponds to Ar 3d1 4s2.
With the Electron configuration, we determine the way in which the electrons are distributed, communicate, structure and organize themselves through the Electron shell model. To achieve the electron configuration, the Moeller diagram is used in which the steps are followed and the total number of electrons is completed.
Effects of scandium in the environment
Scandium is released into nature in several places, mainly by industries that produce oil. Scandium can also be present in the environment when household or household equipment is discarded. This element gradually accumulates in water and soils, eventually producing increased concentrations in animals, humans and terrestrial particles.
Scandium causes damage in aquatic animals, especially in their cell membranes, which produces different negative influences on the functions and reproduction of their nervous system.
Applications and uses of scandium
Scandium oxide is used in high intensity lamps, by adding scandium iodide in mercury vapor lamps it is possible to have high quality artificial sunlight. The radioactive isotope is used in petroleum cracking as a tracer.
The addition of scandium to aluminum limits excessive grain growth generated in the heat affected part of the aluminum alloy welding environment. This causes two positive effects: the Al3Sc precipitate creates smaller crystals from which other aluminum alloys are produced, and the volume of precipitate-free zones that usually exist at the grain boundaries of reinforced aluminum alloys is minimized with aging. These effects elevate the use of the alloy. Despite this, titanium alloys that have similarities in strength and lightness are cheaper and more widely used.
The main application of scandium by weight is in scandium-aluminum alloys for minor components in the aerospace industry.
Health Effects of Scandium
Scandium is a rare chemical. It is found at home in equipment such as fluorescent lamps, color televisions, glass and energy saving lamps. Scandium is rarely found in nature because it occurs in trace amounts. This element is usually only found in two different classes of mineral ores. The usefulness of scandium continues to grow as it is very useful for polishing crystals and in the production of catalysts.
Scandium is hazardous in the work area because the gases and moisture can be inhaled with the air and cause pulmonary embolisms, especially during prolonged exposures. Scandium can threaten the liver by building up in a person’s body.