The electron configuration of manganese is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d5 4s2. Manganese is the chemical element of the periodic table of elements located in group 7, its symbol is Mn and its atomic number is 25.
It is found in nature as a free element, often combined with iron and other minerals. As a free element, manganese is characterized by being an alloy metal with other industrial metals that has important uses, mainly in stainless steels.
Manganese phosphate is used to treat steel rust and prevent corrosion. Due to their oxidation state, manganese ions have different shades and are used in industry as pigments. Alkaline earth metals and alkali permanganates are strong oxidants. The cathode is used as manganese dioxide.
Manganese ions act as cofactors for a series of enzymes located in higher organisms, they are important in the detoxification of free radicals that superoxide possesses. This element is a fundamental trace element for all known living species. In large quantities and having a greater activity by inhalation, manganese can cause an intoxication syndrome in mammals and cause sometimes irreversible neurological damage.
Electron configuration of manganese
The full electron configuration of this element is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d5 4s2, while its shortened version of electron configuration is [Ar] 3d5 4s2.
Main properties of manganese
This element is a transition metal, it resembles iron, its shade is grayish-white. This metal is very brittle, it is hard, it rusts easily and it is refractory. Manganese metal can also be ferromagnetic but only after special treatment. Its most common oxidation states are 3+, 2+, 6+, 4+ and +7.
Although its compounds have been found with each of the oxidation numbers from 1+ to 7+. Compounds found in which manganese has an oxidation state greater than 7+ are high energy oxidizing agents. It is mainly used in the alloy with iron in steels and in various alloys.
Applications of manganese and its electron configuration
- In standard disposable batteries.
- A manganese compound added to unleaded gasoline minimizes engine chatter by increasing the octane rating of the fuel.
- Manganese is alloyed with aluminum to create a more corrosion resistant alloy. Almost all aluminum beverage cans contain less than 1.5% manganese.
- Manganese is used for the production of iron and steel. It is a fundamental component for making inexpensive stainless steel.
- Manganese oxide is used for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol. Iron contamination can cause the glass to tint green. In ancient times, a manganese compound was added to glass to counteract this effect.
- In some countries, manganese is used to make coins.
- Ceramics and glass can be colored by various manganese compounds.
- Chlorine and oxygen are treated with manganese dioxide. This compound is also a brown pigment used in the manufacture of paints.
Biological role of manganese
Manganese is a trace element, that is to say it is essential for all forms of life in humans. Manganese is necessary for the proper functioning of the immune system, regulation of cellular energy and blood sugar, digestion, reproduction, blood clotting, bone growth, hemostasis, and defense against reactive oxygen species.